Grifola frondosa

Maitake/Drug Interactions:

  • AnticoagulantsAnticoagulants: In a letter to the editor describing a case report, maitake extract in combination with warfarin resulted in an elevated international normalized ratio (INR) (25).
  • AntidiabeticsAntidiabetics: In limited available human research, maitake mushroom reduced blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes (18). Animal research has also suggested hypoglycemic properties of oral maitake (13; 17; 14; 15; 16; 28).
  • Antihypertensive agentsAntihypertensive agents: In animal research, maitake powder and extracts (Grifola frondosa) resulted in a decrease in blood pressure (7; 4; 28; 29). Human reports and interactions with antihypertensive agents are lacking in the available literature.
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In animal research, maitake (Grifola frondosa) reduced plasma levels of triglyceride (14; 28) and total cholesterol (7). In an animal model, fiber from Grifola frondosa resulted in a reduction in cholesterol (5).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: In human research, maitake powder and fractions of maitake mushroom demonstrated anticancer effects, such as tumor regression and prevention of recurrence (30; 31; 32; 33) and protection against side effects of chemotherapeutic agents (31). In laboratory and animal studies, as well as manufacturer reports, there is controversy over whether maitake mushroom may induce apoptosis or whether its main action is as an adaptogen or immunostimulant (21; 34). In vitro, a maitake beta-glucan MD-fraction extract enhanced murine hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and reduced doxorubicin toxicity (35).
  • Antiviral agentsAntiviral agents: A novel antiviral (anti-HSV) protein has been purified from an extract of Grifola frondosa (36). The hepatitis B virus has been inhibited by D-fraction from Grifola frondosa, and a synergistic effect of combination with IFN-alpha in HepG2 2.2.15 has been observed (37).
  • Clomiphene citrateClomiphene citrate: In human research, a maitake mushroom SX-fraction extract induced ovulation to a similar extent as clomiphene citrate in patients, although to a lesser extent based on cycles (24).
  • Fertility agentsFertility agents: In human research, a maitake mushroom SX-fraction extract induced ovulation to a similar extent as clomiphene citrate in patients, although to a lesser extent based on cycles (24).
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: In human research, increasing doses of maitake resulted in increases in some immunologic parameters and decreases in others, with nonmonotonic dose-response curves for many of the endpoints measured (19). According to animal and in vitro studies, maitake mushroom may affect the immune response (20; 21; 22; 23).
  • ImmunostimulantsImmunostimulants: In human research, increasing doses of maitake resulted in increases in some immunologic parameters and decreases in others, with nonmonotonic dose-response curves for many of the endpoints measured (19). According to animal and in vitro studies, maitake mushroom may affect the immune response (20; 21; 22; 23).
  • InterferonsInterferons: The hepatitis B virus has been inhibited by D-fraction from Grifola frondosa, and a synergistic effect of combination with IFN-alpha in HepG2 2.2.15 was observed (37).
  • Photosensitizing agentsPhotosensitizing agents: Exopolysaccharide, prepared by submerged mycelial culture of a newly isolated mushroom Grifola frondosa HB0071, demonstrated photoprotective potential in human dermal fibroblasts exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA) light (8).
  • WarfarinWarfarin: In a letter to the editor describing a case report, maitake extract in combination with warfarin resulted in an elevated INR (25).
  • Maitake/Herb/Supplement Interactions:

  • AnticoagulantsAnticoagulants: In a letter to the editor describing a case report, maitake extract in combination with warfarin resulted in an elevated INR (25).
  • AntidiabeticsAntidiabetics: In limited available human research, maitake mushroom reduced blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes (18). Animal research has also suggested hypoglycemic properties of oral maitake (13; 17; 14; 15; 16; 28).
  • Antihypertensive agentsAntihypertensive agents: In animal research, maitake powder and extracts (Grifola frondosa) resulted in a decrease in blood pressure (7; 4; 28; 29). Human reports and interactions with antihypertensive agents are lacking in the available literature.
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In animal research, maitake (Grifola frondosa) reduced plasma levels of triglyceride (14; 28) and total cholesterol (7). In an animal model, fiber from Grifola frondosa resulted in a reduction in cholesterol (5).
  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: In human research, maitake powder and fractions of maitake mushroom demonstrated anticancer effects, such as tumor regression and prevention of recurrence (30; 31; 32; 33) and protection against side effects of chemotherapeutic agents (31). In laboratory and animal studies, as well as manufacturer reports, there is controversy over whether maitake mushroom may induce apoptosis or whether its main action is as an adaptogen or immunostimulant (21; 34). In vitro, a maitake beta-glucan MD-fraction extract enhanced murine hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and reduced doxorubicin toxicity (35).
  • AntiviralsAntivirals: A novel antiviral (anti-HSV) protein has been purified from an extract of Grifola frondosa (36). The hepatitis B virus has been inhibited by D-fraction from Grifola frondosa, and a synergistic effect of combination with IFN-alpha in HepG2 2.2.15 has been observed (37).
  • ChromiumChromium: In animal research, a maitake mushroom extract reduced systolic blood pressure and plasma levels of glucose to a greater extent with the addition of chromium (28).
  • Fertility agentsFertility agents: In human research, a maitake mushroom SX-fraction extract induced ovulation to a similar extent as clomiphene citrate in patients, although to a lesser extent based on cycles (24).
  • ImmunomodulatorsImmunomodulators: In human research, increasing doses of maitake resulted in increases in some immunologic parameters and decreases in others, with nonmonotonic dose-response curves for many of the endpoints measured (19). According to animal and in vitro studies, maitake mushroom may affect the immune response (20; 21; 22; 23).
  • Photosensitizing agentsPhotosensitizing agents: Exopolysaccharide, prepared by submerged mycelial culture of a newly isolated mushroom Grifola frondosa HB0071, demonstrated photoprotective potential in human dermal fibroblasts exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA) light (8).
  • Maitake/Food Interactions:

  • Insufficient available evidence.
  • Maitake/Lab Interactions:

  • Blood pressureBlood pressure: In animal research, maitake powder and extracts (Grifola frondosa) resulted in a decrease in blood pressure (7; 4; 28; 29). Human reports and interactions with antihypertensive agents are lacking in the available literature.
  • Blood glucoseBlood glucose: In human research, maitake mushroom reduced blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes (18). Animal research has also suggested hypoglycemic properties of oral maitake (13; 17; 14; 15; 16; 28).
  • CreatinineCreatinine: In animal research, an ether soluble maitake extract resulted in a reduced serum creatinine level (28).
  • CytokinesCytokines: In human research, increasing doses of maitake resulted in increases in some immunologic parameters, such as cytokines, and decreases in others, with nonmonotonic dose-response curves for many of the endpoints measured (19). According to a review, maitake has the potential to affect levels of various cytokines (12). In laboratory and/or animal research, maitake extracts have been suggested to enhance the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by macrophages (38; 39; 40). In laboratory research, maitake extracts increased production of IFN-gamma, IL-12 p70, and IL-18, and decreased IL-4 (20).
  • HbA1cHbA1c: In animal research, decreased HbA1c occurred after treatment with maitake powder (28).
  • INRINR: In a letter to the editor describing a case report, maitake extract in combination with warfarin resulted in an elevated INR (25).
  • InsulinInsulin: In animal research, maitake increased or decreased insulin levels (14; 17; 15; 28).
  • Plasma lipidsPlasma lipids: In an animal model, maitake (Grifola frondosa) reduced plasma levels of triglyceride (14; 28) and total cholesterol (7). In an animal model, fiber from Grifola frondosa resulted in a reduction in cholesterol (5).