Red palm oil

Palm oil/Drug Interactions:

  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: In humans, acute elevation of the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVIIc) was observed after consumption of palm oil-containing meals caused by an increase in the concentration of activated FVII (FVIIa) (73; 62). However, according to review articles, palm oil may be antithrombotic and also increase the prostacyclin:thromboxane ratio and reduce restenosis (29; 17).
  • Antidiabetic agentsAntidiabetic agents: In humans, palm oil was reported to increase endogenous glucose production by impairing suppression of glycogenolysis in nondiabetic obese males (74).
  • AntihypertensivesAntihypertensives: In animals, rabbits fed diets containing high concentrations of safflower oil and palm oil became hypertensive (57). However, there is evidence that palm oil ingestion causes a reduction in blood pressure in humans and may prevent pregnancy-induced hypertension (30; 58).
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In humans, there is evidence that palm oil raises cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels under some conditions and lowers it under others (i.e., healthy vs. hypercholesterolemic humans) (59; 60; 61; 62; 63; 17; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69).
  • Cardiovascular agentsCardiovascular agents: In humans and animals, antioxidant activity of palm oil may prevent atherosclerosis (71; 60; 72; 25; 6). However, the World Health Organization has warned that there is evidence that palmitic acid may increase the risk of heart disease.
  • ImmunosuppressantsImmunosuppressants: In humans, palm oil increased postprandial leukocyte counts (62).
  • LaxativesLaxatives: According to secondary sources, palm oil has been used to treat diarrhea and dysentery in infants. A maize-cowpea-palm oil diet available in Nigeria had limited effects in the treatment of diarrhea (100). Palm oil may have caused stomachache, flatulence, and loose stools in one clinical trial (70).
  • TamoxifenTamoxifen: According to a review, it is not clear if palm oil has antineoplastic activity (18). Based on information from secondary sources, a study performed in breast cancer patients found that palm oil tocotrienols were just as effective as tamoxifen alone and increased the potency of tamoxifen by 45% when used in combination.
  • Palm oil/Herb/Supplement Interactions:

  • Anticoagulants and antiplateletsAnticoagulants and antiplatelets: In human research, acute elevation of the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVIIc) was observed after consumption of palm oil-containing meals caused by an increase in the concentration of activated FVII (FVIIa) (73; 62). However, according to review articles, palm oil may be antithrombotic and also increase the prostacyclin:thromboxane ratio and reduce restenosis (29; 17).
  • AntilipemicsAntilipemics: In humans, there is evidence that palm oil raises cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels under some conditions and lowers it under others (i.e., healthy vs. hypercholesterolemic humans) (59; 60; 61; 62; 63; 17; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69).
  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: Palm oil and palm oil extracts have exhibited antioxidant properties in human and in vitro studies (17; 21; 15; 101; 102).
  • Beta-caroteneBeta-carotene: Red palm oil is one of the richest dietary sources of beta-carotene (103; 104).
  • Cardiovascular herbs and supplementsCardiovascular herbs and supplements: In humans and animals, the antioxidant activity of palm oil may prevent atherosclerosis (71; 60; 72; 25; 6). However, the World Health Organization has warned that there is evidence that palmitic acid may increase the risk of heart disease.
  • HypoglycemicsHypoglycemics: In humans, palm oil was reported to increase endogenous glucose production by impairing suppression of glycogenolysis in nondiabetic obese males (74).
  • HypotensivesHypotensives: In animals, rabbits fed diets containing high concentrations of safflower oil and palm oil became hypertensive (57). However, there is evidence that palm oil ingestion causes a reduction in blood pressure in humans and may prevent pregnancy-induced hypertension (30; 58).
  • Immunomodulating herbs and supplementsImmunomodulating herbs and supplements: In human research, palm oil increased postprandial leukocyte counts (62).
  • LaxativesLaxatives: According to secondary sources, palm oil has been used to treat diarrhea and dysentery in infants. A maize-cowpea-palm oil diet available in Nigeria had limited effects in the treatment of diarrhea (100). Palm oil may have caused stomachache, flatulence, and loose stools in one clinical trial (70).
  • LycopeneLycopene: Based on secondary sources, red palm oil may increase blood levels of lycopene.
  • Vitamin A supplementsVitamin A supplements: Beta-carotene-rich foods have been shown to be as effective as vitamin A supplements for preventing vitamin A deficiency in humans (105; 106; 91).
  • Vitamin E supplementsVitamin E supplements: Palm oil contains high levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are constituents of vitamin E (16).
  • Palm oil/Food Interactions:

  • Insufficient available evidence.
  • Palm oil/Lab Interactions:

  • Blood pressureBlood pressure: Rabbits fed diets containing high concentrations of safflower oil and palm oil became hypertensive (57). However, there is evidence that palm oil ingestion causes a reduction in blood pressure in humans and may prevent pregnancy-induced hypertension (30; 58).
  • Carotenoid levelsCarotenoid levels: Ingestion of palm oil increases retinol, tocopherol, and carotenoid levels in serum and breast milk in humans (36; 37; 32; 93; 91; 90; 92; 89; 69).
  • Coagulation panelCoagulation panel: In humans, acute elevation of the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVIIc) was observed after consumption of palm oil-containing meals caused by an increase in the concentration of activated FVII (FVIIa) (73; 62). However, there is evidence that palm oil may be antithrombotic and also increase the prostacyclin:thromboxane ratio and reduce restenosis (29; 17).
  • C-reactive proteinC-reactive protein: There is conflicting evidence as to whether red palm oil supplementation affects C-reactive protein levels in humans (90; 91).
  • Free fatty acidsFree fatty acids: Enteral infusions of palm oil in 14 obese nondiabetic subjects caused plasma free fatty acid concentrations to increase significantly after four hours (74).
  • GlucoseGlucose: In humans, palm oil was reported to increase endogenous glucose production by impairing suppression of glycogenolysis in nondiabetic obese males (74).
  • Leukocyte countsLeukocyte counts: In human research, palm oil increased postprandial leukocyte counts (62).
  • Lipid levelsLipid levels: There is evidence that palm oil raises cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels under some conditions and lowers it under others (i.e., healthy vs. hypercholesterolemic humans) (59; 60; 61; 62; 63; 17; 64; 65; 66; 67; 68; 69). The addition of palm oil to a balanced diet in health humans has been thought to reduce cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides, and to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (107; 108). An improvement in lipoprotein(a) and apo-A1 levels has also been reported (29; 82).
  • Vitamin AVitamin A: Palm oil increased plasma vitamin A (11).